Because I have so much to do and because this subject is well-known, and the Wikipedia page well written, rather than re-invent the wheel I'm quoting here from Wikipedia's "Planets in astrology". When I have more time I'll fill in the corresponding archetypes and equivalences with other symbolic and psycho-c\socio-spiritual systems of thought.
Saturn is the ruling planet of Capricorn and, traditionally, Aquarius and is exalted in Libra. In Roman mythology Saturn is the god of agriculture, founder of civilizations and of social order and conformity. The glyph is most often seen as scythe-like but it is primarily known as the "crescent below the cross", whereas Jupiter's glyph is the "crescent above the cross". The famous rings of the planet Saturn that enclose and surround it, reflect this principle of man's limitations. Saturn takes 29.5 years to orbit the sun, spending about 2.46 years in each sign of the zodiac. Astrologically Saturn is associated with the principles of limitation, restrictions, boundaries, practicality and reality, crystallizing and structures. Saturn governs ambition, career, authority and hierarchy, and conforming social structures. It concerns a person's sense of duty, discipline and responsibility, and their physical and emotional endurance during hardships. Saturn is also considered to represent the part of a person concerned with long-term planning. The Return of Saturn is said to mark significant events in each person's life. According to the first-century poet Manilius, Saturn is sad, morose, and cold and is the greater malefic. According to Claudius Ptolemy, "Saturn is lord of the right ear, the spleen, the bladder, the phlegm, and the bones." Saturn symbolized processes and things which were dry and extremely cold, and, therefore, inimical to life. It governed the melancholic humor. Before the discovery of Uranus, Saturn was universally regarded as the ruling planet of Aquarius.
Many astrologers still use Saturn as the planetary ruler of both Capricorn and Aquarius; in modern astrology it is accordingly the ruler of the 10th and 11th houses. Traditionally, however, Saturn was associated with the first and eighth houses (associated with incarnation and death, respectively; Saturn being the planet of mortality, and hence, why the Grim Reaper carries a scythe). Saturn is also said to 'joy' in the 12th house of self-undoing. Saturn is associated with Saturday, which was named after the deity Saturn. Dante Alighieri associated Saturn with the liberal art of astronomia (astrology and astronomy).
In Chinese astrology, Saturn is ruled by the element earth, which is patient, hard-working and reliable. In Indian astrology, Saturn is called Shani or "Sani", and represents career and longevity. It is also the bringer of bad luck and hardship.]