Because I have so much to do and because this subject is well-known, and the Wikipedia page well written, rather than re-invent the wheel I'm quoting here from Wikipedia's "Planets in astrology". When I have more time I'll fill in the corresponding archetypes and equivalences with other symbolic and psycho-c\socio-spiritual systems of thought.
Mars is the ruling planet of Aries and, for many astrologers, Scorpio and is exalted in Capricorn. Mars is the Roman god of war and bloodshed, whose symbol is a spear and shield (from which its glyph is derived). Both the soil of Mars and the hemoglobin of our blood are rich in iron, and because of this they share its distinct deep red color. Mars orbits the sun in 687 days, spending about 57.25 days in each sign of the zodiac. It is also the first planet that orbits outside of Earth's orbit making it the first planet that doesn't set along with the sun.
Astrologically Mars is associated with confidence and self assertion, aggression, sexuality, energy, strength, ambition, and impulsiveness. Mars governs sports, competitions and physical activities in general. The first-century poet Manilius, described the planet Mars as ardent, and as the lesser malefic. In medicine Mars presides over the genitals, the muscular system, the gonads and adrenal glands; it was held to be hot and excessively dry, and ruled the choleric humor. It was associated with fever, accidents, trauma, pain and surgery. In modern astrology, Mars is said to rule the 1st and 8th houses; traditionally, however, Mars ruled the 3rd and 10th houses and is said to 'joy' in the 6th house of servants, chores and ill-health (all of these houses are associated with labor and energy expenditure: 3rd - schoolchild, 10th - worker, 6th - servant). While Venus tends to the overall relationship atmosphere, Mars is the passionate impulse and action, the masculine aspect, and this goes beyond sex into your drive, discipline, will-power and stamina.
Before the discovery of Pluto, it was universally considered the ruler of Scorpio. Most modern astrologers consider Pluto the ruler of Scorpio, but many regard Mars as a co-ruler, while all traditional astrologers still regard Mars as the only ruler of Scorpio.
Mars is associated with Tuesday, and in Romance languages the word for Tuesday often resembles Mars (in Spanish, martes and in French, mardi). Dante Alighieri associated Mars with the liberal art of arithmetic.
In Chinese astrology Mars is ruled by the element fire, which is passionate, energetic and adventurous. In Indian astrology, Mars is called Mangala and represents energy, confidence and ego.
Comments: to be added...