Literature: Blofeld "Taoism: Quest for Immortality",
also "The Secret & the Sublime"; Li Kuan Yu (Charles Luk):"Secrets of Chinese Meditation",
There is an exact correspondence:
Universal Self = T'ai Ch'i ( Grand Ultimate )
Transpersonal Self = Hsing ( original nature )
"I" = Shen ( spirit )- a "travelling" entity, a part of Ching, Ch'i, Shen triad.
Methods: mainly, taoist yoga (inner alchemy) and contemplative discipline ( quan ).
Universal Self = Paramatman/Shiva
Transpersonal Self = Atman
"I" = jivatman( soul)
Because the main intention of this post is to present comparative psychology, I shall completely avoid the trademarks of Tantra ( Shiva/Shakti, chakras, kundalini, 5 m, etc.). The central similarity with Assagioli is accent on perpetual awareness, the awakening and empowering of "I".
Methods: whatever imaginable
Universal Self = Clear Light ( Sva-Sambhogakaya ?)
Higher Self = Clear Light (Para-Sambhogakaya ?)
"I" = principle of consciousness (vijnana/manas)
Methodology is wide-ranging, from (poly)theistic devotional practices to various yogas ( either "mind-oriented" or "energy/consciousness oriented"; the latter, especially highly ritualized anuttarayogatantra (Highest Yoga Tantra )or the six yogas of Naropa only for "otherworldly" temperaments. In my humble opinion: unnecessary complex with many superfluous "baroque" elements; suited only for extremely "orientally minded" ( or for stars like R. Gere.)
Universal Self= Theos/Nous
Transpersonal Self = Nous/Logos/Word ( ho de ek Noos foteinos)
logos hyios theou ); Lapis Philosophorum in Alchemy
"I" = anthropos ("man")
The process is best described in "Poimandres", where the revelation of Poimandres as God/Nous to Hermes draws vivid ( sometimes too fantastic ) picture of the descent & ascent of anthropos through the spheres of created universe ( here, we're dealing with Ptolemaic spherical cosmos ). Other terms, which shift the meaning & perspective are omitted ( psyche, pneuma, Demiurge, hyle,..). The main thing remains: the divine spark or ray- anthropos is the protagonist in the drama of life.
Methods: in Hermeticism, gnosis & theistic praxis (prayer etc.); in Alchemy, ritualized meditation combined with invocation & magical/protochemical practice.
This is a brief summary of various strands ( especially Dominicans (Eckhart, Tauler, Suso)). In man's soul one can find "Imago Dei" ( German "fuenklein", apex of the soul, scintilla animae- "I"). When man looks with the "eye of the soul" ( Imago Dei ), he finds the Son of God in his heart ( Inner Christ, Indwelling Spirit), then progresses towards God.( Won't elaborate on unmanifest Godhead-this is the pole that is beyond the subject ). Also, albeit this does not include Spanish Carmelitans like St. Theresa, similar phraseology can be found in Protestant contemplatives like Boehme or Law.
Universal Self = God
Transpersonal Self = the Son, Inner Christ
"I" = Imago Dei, scintilla animae
Methods: vita contemplativa
The "soul","I"( not psyche ), ruh, who is the traveller in the worlds ( material, subtle, causal -nasut, malakut, jabarut), finds God in the heart ( the equivalent of Logos - Nur-i-Muhammadi / "Muhammadan Light" ), then Allah in his fullness. The ray of ruh has returned to the sun of God.
Universal Self = God
Transpersonal Self = Indwelling God, Nur-i-Muhammadi
"I" = Ruh
This is a representation of wahdat-i-wujud (Unity of Being) doctrine, in its Neoplatonic variant, as exposed in Bektashi, Malami-Bairami, Mevlevi or Halveti orders. Vedantist Sufism (some branches of Chisti),or wahdat-i-shuhud ( Suhrawardi ) are not covered here. Also, Naqshbandi order has a system similar to chakras- lataif. Here, correspondences are:
Universal Self = Akhwa
Transpersonal Self= Sirr
"I" = Ruh,
these "subtleties" corresponding to various dimensions of spiritual reality.
Methods: religious life ( prayer, contemplation-muraqaba, dhikr -repetition of God's name(s), etc).
Universal Self = Purushottama, Uttama Purusha
Transpersonal Self = Krishna
"I" = jivatman(soul)
The best exemplification is given in "Bhagavad Gita" ( which, however,is also claimed by Advaitists; in my opinion, this assertion is not so well founded.) Again, the true actor is jivatman.
"These bodies come to an end,
It is declared, of the eternal embodied soul,
Which is indestructible and unfathomable.
Therefore fight, son of Bharata!
Who believes him a slayer,
And who thinks him slain,
Both these understand not:
He slays not, is not slain".
Methods: karma, bhakti, jnana yoga
More to follow..